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From Ballparks to Concert Halls: Innovations in Opera with The Cleveland Orchestra

June 2015

Cleveland is known for producing new and exciting developments in the arts, and the genre of opera is no exception. Ever since the founding of the Musical Arts Association in 1915, opera has held a strong presence in Cleveland. In the last 100 years, The Cleveland Orchestra has performed 76 operas either in concert, semi-staged, or fully-staged productions. The Orchestra’s innovations in venue, staging, and choice of operatic subject material continue to shape the future of opera in Northeast Ohio.

The history of opera performances in Cleveland sponsored by the Musical Arts Association dates back to 1915, three years before the founding of The Cleveland Orchestra. During this time, opera was performed in Cleveland by visiting opera companies, such as the New York Metropolitan Opera and Boston-National Grand Opera Company. Perhaps the most memorable of these performances was an open-air presentation of Wagner’s Siegfried in 1916. Masonic Hall and Grey’s Armory, the typical places for performing arts events in Cleveland at the time, were not large enough to accommodate the audiences or sets needed for the production, so there was only one option: opera at the ballpark!

Adella Prentiss Hughes, arts impresario and later founder of The Cleveland Orchestra, rented Cleveland’s League Park stadium for a performance of the opera. The performance featured a specially-constructed permanent portable stage, and the entire production cost $20,000 to put on for a single night — nearly $350,000 in today’s dollars! Conductor Arthur Bodansky led the Metropolitan Opera Orchestra that night, and among the cast were the European superstars — Johannes Sembach in the role of Siegfried, along with Melanie Kurt in the role of Brunnhilde, and Ernestine Schumann-Heink as Erda. This opera was “fully-staged,” meaning that scenery, costumes, and choreography accompanied the music. With such a unique combination of performing forces and venue, it is no surprise that over 10,000 audience members showed up for the spectacle.

Illustration of Fafner and Siegfried printed in The Leader, 1916

The Cleveland newspapers had a field day with opera at the ballpark. The Plain Dealer headlined their story, “Siegfried in Box, Wagner at Bat - Play Ball! How Operatic Fans Will Yell When Fiery Dragon Dies on First!,” and the News remarked that “not a peanut was cracked by the 10,000 fans who shivered, not in the bleachers, but in the boxes, grandstand and pavilions of League Park when Siegfried played a three inning game of big league opera there Thursday night.”

After this big hit, performances of opera in Cleveland continued throughout the 1920s. Then-conductor Nikolai Sokoloff first led The Cleveland Orchestra as a pit orchestra with several well-known choral groups, including the Oberlin Musical Union and the Elgar Choir of Hamilton (Ontario). Unlike the Siegfried performance, these operas were not “fully staged,” but were instead presented as “concert versions”: the music was presented intact, yet without props, scenery, or costumes.

Concert program from one of the operas conducted by Sokoloff, 1921

In 1931, opera in Cleveland enjoyed a brief return to the outdoors, and a “Stadium Opera” week was staged in late July at the ballpark before the start of baseball season. This week of productions included complete performances of Verdi’s Aida and Mascagni’s Cavalleria Rusticana, and involved over 1,500 participants on stage, including several members of The Cleveland Orchestra. The events drew over 90,000 spectators each paying two bits to two dollars for their tickets. Though the week of “Stadium Opera” was repeated again in 1932, it was not financially viable enough to continue in subsequent years.

During the years of the depression, the Metropolitan Opera and other touring groups stopped visiting Cleveland due to financial reasons. To keep opera alive in Cleveland, the Musical Arts Association gave then Cleveland Orchestra conductor Artur Rodzinski a large budget for presenting operas at Severance Hall. And Rodzinski did not disappoint: fifteen fully-staged operas were presented at Severance Hall within the span of five years! For these productions, the Orchestra played in Severance Hall’s orchestra pit, and singers performed on the main stage.

Artur Rodzinski conducting, early 1930s

 

Rodzinski in the orchestra pit, early 1930s

Rodzinski began to collaborate with Wilhelm von Wymetal and Richard Rychtarik in 1934 to produce fully-staged operas at Severance Hall. Formerly a producer at the Vienna Opera, Wymetal had worked with such artistic greats as set designer Alfred Roller and conductor Gustav Mahler. He moved to America in 1921 when he began working at the Metropolitan Opera. In the 1930s, he produced six of Rodzinski’s operas in Cleveland with Richard Rychtarik as his assistant. Rychtarik worked on the majority of Rodzinski’s operas as “scenic architect,” and later moved to New York where he became the principal set designer for the Metropolitan Opera.

Rychtarik created a maquette (small-scale model) for each of The Cleveland Orchestra’s operatic productions under Rodzinski, and it is amazing how closely the models resemble the scenery of the actual performance!

Rychtarik maquette for Die Walkure, 1934

 

Performance of Die Walkure at Severance Hall, 1934

Wymettal, Rychtarik, and Rodzinski kept Cleveland on the cutting-edge of opera in the 1930s.  Rychtarik stated in a 1935 interview that “the modern trend in plays and operas especially, is away from the ‘painted’ realism of yesterday. It is striving more and more for the ‘natural’ realism, such as has been produced in the last few years and last few operatic productions at Severance Hall.”

Cleveland audiences received Rodzinki’s opera productions with great enthusiasm. In the 1934-35 season alone, six fully-staged operas were offered as part of the regular concert subscription series. The national publication Musical America even noted that “The Cleveland Orchestra has always been noted for its enterprise. In its decision to give opera on the highest plane it has challenged the attention of musical institutions everywhere.”

Perhaps the most significant operatic performance during the Rodzinski years was the United States premiere of Dmitri Shostakovich’s Lady Macbeth of Mtsensk. During a trip to the Soviet Union in the summer of 1934, Rodzinski saw the opera performed seven times. He made notes of the opera’s lavish settings during his numerous attendances, and conferred with the young Shostakovich to get firsthand information concerning other details. By the end of the summer, Rodzinski was so moved to claim the piece’s American premiere for Cleveland that he outbid conductor Leopold Stokowski for the privilege of performing the opera. When Rodzinski returned to Cleveland, his travel trunks bulged with most of the original manuscripts of Lady Macbeth written in Shostakovich’s own hand.

Excerpt from Rodzinski’s Lady Macbeth sketches, 1934

It took the combined efforts of Rodzinski, the American ambassador, William C. Bullitt, and Newton D. Baker, former Secretary of War, to persuade Soviet officials to allow Shostakovich’s work to be “exported” to the capitalistic world. Rodzinski discusses the experience of trying to leave Leningrad with the manuscripts in a WTAM radio interview on October 10, 1934:

The interviewer begins: “You are putting Cleveland on the musical map in a big way securing the American premiere of this Russian Lady Macbeth. How did you succeed in getting it?”

Rodzinski responds: “Through Mr. Newton D. Baker’s kind recommendation, I met Ambassador Bullitt, who was a wonderful help, for he was so excited over the opera he did everything he could. He attended almost as many performances as I did. You can’t imagine all the interviews, all the details we studied. You see, the product of a Soviet artist belongs to the state, so my dealings were with the high officials of the Soviet Government. It was fortunate I could speak some Russian!

At Leningrad I was ready to board the plane for Danzig with part of Shostakovich’s precious manuscript and some drawings for stage settings — with crosses, circles and dotted lines on them. The big customs officer found them in my luggage. He looked ominous and sternly said, “We will keep these. For all we know, these may be drawings of fortifications, the placement of guns and guards.” Such a business! Here was the work of my whole six weeks to be snatched away! My heart stopped beating! It took me more than one hour to persuade and explain — and finally he let me take them!”

In January of 1935, The Cleveland Orchestra staged Lady Macbeth at Severance Hall. People traveled from as far away as California to hear the American premiere of the opera, and George Gershwin was among the celebrities in the audience. After the performance, Herbert Elwell of Plain Dealer wrote that “surely nothing quite like it has been heard here… But as to the reaction of the audience which packed the house to the door, there can be no doubt. Its members were shocked and stimulated simultaneously. They tittered and gasped. They recalled principals time after time, and when Rodzinski appeared at the beginning of the third act, applause broke into a deafening roar.” The production was later taken on the road to New York, and The Cleveland Orchestra became the first “visiting opera team” to perform at the Met, as they were called by the press.

Left: Flyer for performance of Lady Macbeth in Cleveland, 1934
Right: Program from opening night of Lady Macbeth, 1934

It is extremely fortunate that Rodzinski was able to take his sketches with him when departing Russia. On January 28, 1936, Stalin attended a performance of the Bolshoi production of Shostakovich’s opera, and left before the fourth act. Two days later, an unsigned editorial bearing the title “Muddle Instead of Music” appeared unexpectedly in the government newspaper Pravda. An uncompromising attack on the opera, it equated the piece’s perceived flaws with “leftist distortions” in the other arts, contrasting it with the realistic, wholesome character of the “true” art demanded by the people. The opera was repressed and disappeared from the repertory, not to return for nearly 30 years — and then only after Stalin’s death, and in a sanitized, revised version. Had Rodzinski not stuffed his travel trunks with the manuscripts documenting his conversations with Shostokovich, one wonders if the original production could have been restored!

Cleveland staging of Lady Macbeth, 1934

The Great Depression and the years during and after World War II led to the end of fully-staged operatic productions at Severance, but opera returned to the hall in the 1960s when The Cleveland Orchestra and twelve other local arts organizations came together to create the Lake Eerie Opera Theatre (LEOT). This project presented new and unfamiliar operas to Cleveland audiences at Severance Hall before the start of the official Orchestra season. At this time, James Levine was beginning to make a name for himself as an opera conductor during his tenure as assistant conductor of The Cleveland Orchestra, and he conducted concert performances at Severance Hall of a number of operas that included internationally prominent soloists. Among the operas presented were fully-staged versions of Stravinsky’s The Rake’s Progress, Prokofiev’s The Love for Three Oranges, Britten’s Albert Herring, and Poulenc’s Dialogues of the Carmelites.

Left: Flyer for the Lake Erie Opera Theater, 1964
Right: James Levine, late 1960s

In 1985, The Cleveland Orchestra returned to outdoor opera productions with performances at Blossom Music Center under the direction of Christoph von Dohnányi. Staged versions of Mozart’s The Magic Flute and Lehar’s The Merry Widow were presented, as well as some concert productions at Severance Hall.

Mozart’s Magic Flute at Blossom Music Center, 1985

Franz Welser-Möst has led annual opera performances at Severance Hall during his tenure in Cleveland, re-establishing the Orchestra as an important operatic ensemble. Following six seasons of opera-in-concert presentations, he brought fully-staged opera back to Severance Hall with a three-season cycle of the Mozart-Da Ponte operas in Zurich Opera productions.

Mozart’s Cosi fan tutte at Severance Hall, 2010

The Cleveland Orchestra’s most recent operatic production was a staging of Janacek’s Cunning Little Vixen as part of the 2013/14 season. This performancewas groundbreaking in more ways than one: the staging for this “digitally-animated opera” was created specifically for Cleveland Orchestra performances of the work, and the set was made up ofthree 26-foot screens upon which animation was projected. The characters of the opera were mostly animated, and cutouts in the screens let them adopt the heads of human singers at times, melding animation with reality.

Leos Janacek’s Cunning Little Vixen, 2014

This past May, The Cleveland Orchestra performed a staged version of Strauss’s Daphne, for which Severance Hall was transformed into a “tableau of nature,” with artificial grass on stage and a large orb alternately representing the sun and moon. “We will fill Severance Hall with an art installation of light and potent, tangible physicality,” said director James Darrah. “Nature will invade the concert hall’s floor and the surrounding walls will seem to shimmer with life. The sun and moon alternate their glow around the musicians…. A virtuosic single female dancer, eschewing any assigned ‘role,’ appears as an embodiment of the richness and breadth of Strauss’s music. Moving throughout the cast, chorus, orchestra, and concert hall itself, the dancer is a living distillation of orchestral texture.” The Cleveland Orchestra’s upcoming presentation of Daphne continues the tradition of unique and groundbreaking works on stage at Severance Hall, expanding the Orchestra’s rich operatic history and maintaining its identity as a longstanding proponent of innovations in opera.

—Kate Rogers

Kate Rogers is an intern this season with The Cleveland Orchestra Archives.
She is a PhD student in musicology at Case Western Reserve University.

All photographs courtesy of The Cleveland Orchestra Archives.

Looking for more?
Click here to watch documentary video diaries of the making of last year’s groundbreaking opera, Janacek’s Cunning Little Vixen.